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Carraraite

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Carrarait
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Carrarait

farbloser Carrarait mit grünem Konichalcit; Größe: 0,6 mm; Fundort: Gioia Bruch, Carrara, Apuanische Alpen, Massa-Carrara, Provinz, Toskana (Toscana), Italien

Copyright: Matteo Chinellato
Contribution: Hg 2012-06-22
Locality: Gioia Bruch / Carrara / Massa-Carrara, Provinz / Toskana (Toscana) / Italien

Collectors Summary

Color farblos, weiß
Streak color weiß
Hardness (Mohs) 2.00 - 2.50
Cleavages keine
Crystal System hexagonal, P63/m

Chemism

Chem­ical formula

Ca3Ge4+[(OH)6|CO3|SO4]·12H2O

Chem­ical com­po­si­tion

Calcium, Germanium, Kohlenstoff, Sauerstoff, Schwefel, Wasserstoff

Unit weight: 667.17664 u; Number of atoms in the formula: 61

Info

Empirical formula:

Ca3Ge[(OH)6CO3SO4]·12H2O

Element

Symbol

Weight%

Atoms

Atoms%

Atom weight (u)

Sum weight (u)

Hydrogen

H

4.53

30

49.18

1.0079470

30.2384100

Carbon

C

1.80

1

1.64

12.0107800

12.0107800

Oxygen

O

59.95

25

40.98

15.9994300

399.9857500

Sulfur

S

4.81

1

1.64

32.0655000

32.0655000

Calcium

Ca

18.02

3

4.92

40.0784000

120.2352000

Germanium

Ge

10.89

1

1.64

72.6410000

72.6410000

Strunz 9th edi­tion incl. updates

7.DG.15

7: Sulfate (Selenate, Tellurate, Chromate, Molybdate, Wolframate)
D: Sulfate (Selenate, etc.) mit weitere Anionen, mit H2O
G: Mit großen bis mittelgroßen Kationen; mit NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 oder IO3
15:Ettringit-Gruppe

Lapis Clas­sifica­tion

VI/D.13-035

VI: SULFATE, CHROMATE, MOLYBDATE UND WOLFRAMATE
D: Wasserhaltige Sulfate, mit fremden Anionen
13: Mittelgroße und sehr große Kationen; Ettringit-Gruppe

Clas­sifica­tion by Hölzel

7.DK.230

7: SULFATES CHROMATES MOLYBDATES WOLFRAMATES
D: Sulfates (+Anions +Water)
K: Ettringite-Group

Dana 8th edi­tion

32.04.04.05

32: Compound Sulfates
04: Compound Sulfates (hydrous) with poly-anionic formula
04: Charlesite Group

IMA sta­tus

Anerkannt von der CNMNC

Min­eral sta­tus

anerkanntes Mineral

IMA Classification

IMA Clas­sifica­tion

Ettringite group

Optical Properties

Color

farblos, weiß

Streak color

weiß

max. Birefrin­gence

0.030

Birefringence chart\! Carraraite title=Birefringence chart Carraraite

Michel-Levy Color Chart viewed according to the maximum birefringence (at 30μm). Mineral color is not taken into account. Click on the image to enlarge or change thickness.

RI value α / ω / n

1.509

RI value γ / ε

1.479

Ri mean

1.499

2V angle

Uniaxial (-)

Crystallography

Crystal Sys­tem

hexagonal

Class (H-M)

6/m

Space Group number

176

Space Group

P63/m

Cell param­e­ters a (Å)

11.056

Cell param­e­ters b (Å)

-

Cell param­e­ters c (Å)

10.629

Cell param­e­ters a/b or c/a

0.961

Cell param­e­ters c/b

-

Cell param­e­ters α

90°

Cell param­e­ters β

90°

Cell param­e­ters γ

120°

Z

2

Volumne (ų)

1125.172

X-Ray Pow­der Diffrac­tion

9.57(100),
5.53(80),
3.83(80),
3.56(70),
3.44(50),
2.74(70),
2.53(50),
2.38(50)

XRD chart Carraraite

Calculated from d-spacing and intensity at 0.1541838 nm (Cu)

Crystals 3D

Open larger view

Crystal Structure 3D

Open larger view

Physical Properties

Hard­ness (Mohs)

2.00 - 2.50

Density (g/cm³)

1.979 (berechnet)

1.969 ( ρ calc. Mineralienatlas )

Cleav­ages

keine

Preface

Author (Name, Year)

Merlino & Orlandi, 2001

References

American Mineralogist 86 (2001), 1293

IMA group assignments

Related minerals "Strunz Classification" (9. Edition) [Mineral | Chemical formula | Crystal system : Class (H-M) : Space Group | Indenture number]

'Birunite'

Ca18(SiO3)8.5(CO3)8.5(SO4)·15H2O

7.DG.15

Bentorite

Ca6(Cr,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12·26 H2O

7.DG.15

Buryatite

Ca3(Si,Fe3+,Al)(SO4)B(OH)4(OH,O)6·12H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

7.DG.15

Siwaqaite

Ca6Al2(CrO4)3(OH)12·26H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

7.DG.15

Carraraite

Ca3Ge4+[(OH)6|CO3|SO4]·12H2O

hexagonal : 6/m : P63/m

7.DG.15

Charlesite

Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2B(OH)4(OH,O)12·26H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

7.DG.15

Ettringite

Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

7.DG.15

Sturmanite

Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn2+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12·25H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

7.DG.15

Thaumasite

Ca3Si(OH)6(CO3)(SO4)·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DG.15

Jouravskite

Ca3Mn4+(SO4,CO3)2(OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DG.15

Hielscherite

Ca3Si(SO4)(SO3)(OH)6·11H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DG.15

Tatarinovite

Са3Al(SO4)[B(OH)4](OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DG.15

Imayoshiite

Ca3Al(CO3)[B(OH)4](OH)6・12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DG.15

Kottenheimite

Ca3Si(SO4)2(OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6/m : P63/m

7.DG.15

Related minerals "Lapis Classification" [Mineral | Chemical formula | Crystal system : Class (H-M) : Space Group | Indenture number]

Ettringite

Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

VI/D.13-010

Bentorite

Ca6(Cr,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12·26 H2O

VI/D.13-020

Kottenheimite

Ca3Si(SO4)2(OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6/m : P63/m

VI/D.13-023

Hielscherite

Ca3Si(SO4)(SO3)(OH)6·11H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

VI/D.13-024

Thaumasite

Ca3Si(OH)6(CO3)(SO4)·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

VI/D.13-025

Jouravskite

Ca3Mn4+(SO4,CO3)2(OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

VI/D.13-030

Carraraite

Ca3Ge4+[(OH)6|CO3|SO4]·12H2O

hexagonal : 6/m : P63/m

VI/D.13-035

Charlesite

Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2B(OH)4(OH,O)12·26H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

VI/D.13-040

Sturmanite

Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn2+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12·25H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

VI/D.13-050

Buryatite

Ca3(Si,Fe3+,Al)(SO4)B(OH)4(OH,O)6·12H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

VI/D.13-060

Related minerals "Hoelzel Classification" [Mineral | Chemical formula : Crystal system : Class (H-M) | Space Group | Indenture number]

Thaumasite

Ca3Si(OH)6(CO3)(SO4)·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DK.200

Jouravskite

Ca3Mn4+(SO4,CO3)2(OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DK.210

Kottenheimite

Ca3Si(SO4)2(OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6/m : P63/m

7.DK.220

Hielscherite

Ca3Si(SO4)(SO3)(OH)6·11H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DK.225

Carraraite

Ca3Ge4+[(OH)6|CO3|SO4]·12H2O

hexagonal : 6/m : P63/m

7.DK.230

Micheelsenite

(Ca,Y)3Al[(OH)6|{PO3(OH),CO3}|CO3]·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DK.250

Imayoshiite

Ca3Al(CO3)[B(OH)4](OH)6・12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

7.DK.260

Related minerals "Dana 8. Classification" [Mineral | Chemical formula : Crystal system : Class (H-M) | Space Group | Indenture number]

Nakauriite

Cu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6·48H2O

32.04.01.01

Tatarskite

Ca6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2Cl4(OH)4·7H2O

32.04.02.01

Charlesite

Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2B(OH)4(OH,O)12·26H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

32.04.04.01

Sturmanite

Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn2+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12·25H2O

trigonal : 3m : P31c

32.04.04.02

Jouravskite

Ca3Mn4+(SO4,CO3)2(OH)6·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

32.04.04.03

Thaumasite

Ca3Si(OH)6(CO3)(SO4)·12H2O

hexagonal : 6 : P63

32.04.04.04

Carraraite

Ca3Ge4+[(OH)6|CO3|SO4]·12H2O

hexagonal : 6/m : P63/m

32.04.04.05

Hotsonite

Al5(PO4)(SO4)(OH)10·8H2O

32.04.05.01

Chessexite

Na4Ca2(Mg,Zn)3Al8(SiO4)2(SO4)10(OH)10·40H2O

32.04.06.01

Gordaite

NaZn4[Cl(OH)6|SO4]·6H2O

trigonal : 3 : P3

32.04.07.01

CNMNC (IMA)-Number

IMA 1998-002

CNMNC symbol

Symbol

Cra

Automatic Links to external internet sources (Responsibility is with the operator)

German pages

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