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Effenbergerite

Pictures (2 Images total)

Blaue Einsprenglinge von Effenbergerit in lila Sugilith
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Blaue Einsprenglinge von Effenbergerit in lila Sugilith

Fundort: Wessels Mine, Northern Cape, Kuruman, Hotazel, Südafrika; Bildbreite: 6 mm

Copyright: McSchuerf
Contribution: McSchuerf 2005-10-02
Locality: Wessel's Mine (Wessels Mine) / Hotazel / Kalahari Manganese Field / Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz / Südafrika
Effenbergerit
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Effenbergerit

Größe: 22x18x12 mm; Fundort: Wessels Mine, Hotazel, Kalahari Manganfelder, Provinz Nordkap, Südafrika

Copyright: Rob Lavinsky
Contribution: slugslayer 2011-07-26
Locality: Wessel's Mine (Wessels Mine) / Hotazel / Kalahari Manganese Field / Nordkap (Northern Cape), Provinz / Südafrika

Collectors Summary

Color blau
Streak color blass blau
Hardness (Mohs) 4.5
Cleavages vollkommen {001}, sehr undeutlich {110}
Fracture halbmuschelig
Solubility - Säuren
Crystal System tetragonal, P4/ncc

Additional information / Summary

Effenbergerit - 'Han Blau'

Das blaue Farbpigment 'Han Blau' wurde in China bereits zur Zeit der namensgebenden Han Dynastie (208 BC - 220 AD) künstlich hergestellt (1,6). Dieses Pigment kommt natürlich als das Mineral Effenbergerit vor. Ähnlich(1-6) zu Han Blau sind die Pigmente

  • Ägyptisch Blau, CaCuSi4O10 (das Mineral Cuprorivait) sowie
  • Han Violett BaCuSi2O6 (Colinowensit).
  • Zudem lassen sich weitere blaue Farbpigmente der Form(Ca,Sr,Ba)CuSi4O10 beschreiben (5), was das Mineral Wesselsit einschließt

Gemeinsam ist dieser Pigmentfamilie eine Lumineszenz im nahen Infraroten (Bande um 900 nm) bei Anregung mit Licht im Bereich von rund 450 bis 900 nm (1-3).

Chemism

Chem­ical formula

BaCu[Si4O10]

Chem­ical com­po­si­tion

Barium, Kupfer, Silicium, Sauerstoff

Unit weight: 473.21042 u; Number of atoms in the formula: 16

Info

Empirical formula:

BaCu[Si4O10]

Element

Symbol

Weight%

Atoms

Atoms%

Atom weight (u)

Sum weight (u)

Oxygen

O

33.81

10

62.50

15.9994300

159.9943000

Silicon

Si

23.74

4

25.00

28.0855300

112.3421200

Copper

Cu

13.43

1

6.25

63.5463000

63.5463000

Barium

Ba

29.02

1

6.25

137.3277000

137.3277000

Anal­y­sis wt%

Ø SiO2 : 50.76, CuO : 16.52, BaO : 32.48 (Ref: Mineralogical Magazine 94)

Strunz 9th edi­tion incl. updates

9.EA.05

9: Silikate (Germanate)
E: Schichtsilikate (Phyllosilikate)
A: Einfache Tetraedernetze mit 4-, 5-, (6-), und 8 beteiligten Ringen
05:Gillespit-Gruppe

Lapis Clas­sifica­tion

VIII/H.02-030

VIII: SILIKATE
H: Schichtsilikate
2: tetragonale oder pseudotetragonale Schichtstrukturen [Si4O10] 4- u.a.

Clas­sifica­tion by Hölzel

9.EA.210

9: SILICATES
E: Phyllosilicates
A: tetragonal & pseudotetragonal Phyllosilicates
2: Cuprorivait-Group

Dana 8th edi­tion

71.02.03.03

71: Phyllosilicate Minerals
02: Phyllosilicates Phyllosilicate Sheets of Six-Membered Rings with 2:1 Layers
03: Cuprorivaite group

IMA sta­tus

Anerkannt von der CNMNC

Min­eral sta­tus

anerkanntes Mineral

Optical Properties

Color

blau

Streak color

blass blau

Diaphane­ity (Trans­parency)

transparent

max. Birefrin­gence

0.040

Birefringence chart\! Effenbergerite title=Birefringence chart Effenbergerite

Michel-Levy Color Chart viewed according to the maximum birefringence (at 30μm). Mineral color is not taken into account. Click on the image to enlarge or change thickness.

RI value α / ω / n

1.633

RI value γ / ε

1.593

Ri mean

1.620

2V angle

Uniaxial (-)

Optical Data Luminescence

Lumi­nes­cence

Lumineszenz im NIR (um 910nm) mit Anregung im Bereich um 450-900nm.

Most Common Acti­vator

Cu2+

Crystallography

Crystal Sys­tem

tetragonal

Class (H-M)

4/mmm

Space Group number

130

Space Group

P4/ncc

Cell param­e­ters a (Å)

7.442

Cell param­e­ters b (Å)

-

Cell param­e­ters c (Å)

16.133

Cell param­e­ters a/b or c/a

2.168

Cell param­e­ters c/b

-

Cell param­e­ters α

90°

Cell param­e­ters β

90°

Cell param­e­ters γ

90°

Z

4

Volumne (ų)

893.5

Kristall struc­ture

aufgeklärt, siehe Kevin S. Knight, C. Michael B. Henderson, Simon M. Clark: Structural variations in the wesselsite–effenbergerite (Sr1–xBaxCuSi4O10) solid solution. Eur J Mineral 22 (2010) S.411-423.

X-Ray Pow­der Diffrac­tion

8.06(100),
4.03(40),
3.544(30),
3.200(40),
2.689(20),
2.394(40),
2.017(30),
1.947(20)

XRD chart Effenbergerite

Calculated from d-spacing and intensity at 0.1541838 nm (Cu)

Crystals 3D

Open larger view

Crystal Structure 3D

Open larger view

Physical Properties

Hard­ness (Mohs)

4.5

VHN (Hard­ness Vick­ers)

280 (ungefähre Angabe abgeleitet aus der Mohshärte)

Density (g/cm³)

3.57 - 3.52 / Durchschnittlich = 3.54

3.518 ( ρ calc. Mineralienatlas )

Cleav­ages

vollkommen {001}, sehr undeutlich {110}

Frac­ture

halbmuschelig

Tenac­ity

spröde

Insta­bil­ity

- Säuren

Preface

Author (Name, Year)

Giester & Rieck, 1994

References

Mineralogical Magazine 58 (1994), 663

'Han Blau' und Lumineszenz

(1) Verri, Giovanni. "The spatially resolved characterisation of Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple by photo-induced luminescence digital imaging." Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 394.4 (2009): 1011-1021.
(2)Pozza, G., Ajò, D., Chiari, G., De Zuane, F., & Favaro, M. (2000). Photoluminescence of the inorganic pigments Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 1(4), 393-398.>br> (3) http://www.artinsociety.com/egyptian-blue-the-colour-of-technology.html
(4) Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah, and Tina T. Salguero. "Exfoliation of Egyptian blue and Han blue, two alkali earth copper silicate-based pigments." Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE 86 (2014).
(5) Chen, Yan, et al. "Hydrothermal synthesis, hierarchical structures and properties of blue pigments SrCuSi 4 O 10 and BaCuSi 4 O 10." CrystEngComm 16.24 (2014): 5418-5423.
(6) García-Fernández, P., Moreno, M., & Aramburu, J. A. (2014). Origin of the exotic blue color of copper-containing historical pigments. Inorganic chemistry, 54(1), 192-199.

Related minerals "Strunz Classification" (9. Edition) [Mineral | Chemical formula | Crystal system : Class (H-M) : Space Group | Indenture number]

Gillespite

BaFe2+Si4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.05

Wesselsite

Sr0.9Ba0.1CuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.05

Cuprorivaite

CaCuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.05

Effenbergerite

BaCu[Si4O10]

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.05

Related minerals "Lapis Classification" [Mineral | Chemical formula | Crystal system : Class (H-M) : Space Group | Indenture number]

Cuprorivaite

CaCuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

VIII/H.02-010

Wesselsite

Sr0.9Ba0.1CuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

VIII/H.02-020

Effenbergerite

BaCu[Si4O10]

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

VIII/H.02-030

Gillespite

BaFe2+Si4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

VIII/H.02-040

Sanbornite

BaSi2O5

orthorhombisch : mmm : Pmcn

VIII/H.02-050

Bigcreekite

BaSi2O5·4H2O

orthorhombisch : mmm : Pnma

VIII/H.02-060

Related minerals "Hoelzel Classification" [Mineral | Chemical formula : Crystal system : Class (H-M) | Space Group | Indenture number]

Cuprorivaite

CaCuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.200

Effenbergerite

BaCu[Si4O10]

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.210

Wesselsite

Sr0.9Ba0.1CuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.215

Gillespite

BaFe2+Si4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

9.EA.220

Hyalotekite

(Ba,Pb,Ca,K)6(B,Si,Al)2(Si,Be)10O28(F,Cl)

triklin : 1 : I1

9.EA.260

Kapitsaite-(Y)

(Ba,K,Pb2+)4(Y,Ca,Na)2[(F,OH)|I(B,Si)4O4](Si4O12)2]

triklin : 1 : I1

9.EA.270

Related minerals "Dana 8. Classification" [Mineral | Chemical formula : Crystal system : Class (H-M) | Space Group | Indenture number]

Talc

Mg3Si4O10(OH)2

monoklin : 2/m : C2/c

71.02.01.03

Willemseite

(Ni,Mg)3Si4O10(OH)2

monoklin : m : Cc

71.02.01.04

'Glauconite'

(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2

monoklin : 2/m : C2/m

71.02.02a.05

Tobelite

(NH4,K)Al2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2

monoklin : 2/m : C2/m

71.02.02a.07

'Tetraferriannite'

KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2

monoklin : 2/m : C2/m

71.02.02b.04

Sokolovaite

CsLi2AlSi4O10F2

71.02.02b.08b

Zinkosite

ZnSO4

orthorhombisch : mmm : Pnma

71.02.02b.10

'Zinnwaldite'

KLiFe2+Al(AlSi3)O10(F,OH)2

monoklin : 2 : C2

71.02.02b.10

'Ephesite'

NaLiAl2(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2

monoklin : m : Cc

71.02.02b.16

Clintonite

Ca(Mg,Al)3(Al3Si)O10(OH)2

monoklin : 2/m, m : C2/m, ?

71.02.02c.02

Anandite

(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Si,Al,Fe)4O10(S,OH)2

monoklin : 2/m : C2/c

71.02.02c.04

Oxykinoshitalite

(Ba,K)(Mg,Fe2+,Ti4+)3(Si,Al)4O10O2

monoklin : 2/m : C2/m

71.02.02c.08

Hydrobiotite

K(Mg,Fe2+)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4·nH2O

monoklin : 2/m : C2/m

71.02.02d.01

Cuprorivaite

CaCuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

71.02.03.01

Gillespite

BaFe2+Si4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

71.02.03.02

Effenbergerite

BaCu[Si4O10]

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

71.02.03.03

Wesselsite

Sr0.9Ba0.1CuSi4O10

tetragonal : 4/mmm : P4/ncc

71.02.03.04

Ferrisurite

(Pb,Ca)2-3(Fe3+,Al)2[(OH,F)2.5-3|(CO3)1.5-2|Si4O10]·0.5 H2O

monoklin : 2, 2/m : P21, P21/m

71.02.04.01

Surite

Pb2Ca(Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2(CO3,OH)3·0.5 H2O

monoklin : 2 : P21

71.02.04.02

Niksergievite

(Ba, Ca)2Al3[(OH)6|CO3|(Si, Al)4O10]·0.2 H2O

monoklin : 2/m, 2, m : C2/m, C2, Cm

71.02.04.03

Macaulayite

(Fe3+,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2

71.02.05.01

Other languages

German

Effenbergerit

Spanish

Effenbergerita

French

Effenbergerite

English

Effenbergerite

Russian

Эффенбергерит

IMA Number

IMA 1993-036

Automatic Links to external internet sources (Responsibility is with the operator)

German pages

DeWikiPedia - search for: Effenbergerit
Google-Bilder-Suche - search for: Effenbergerit
Mineralogisch-Petrographisches-Institut Hamburg - search for: Effenbergerit

English pages

Mindat - search for: Effenbergerite
Webmineral - search for:Effenbergerite
Handbook-of-Mineralogy - search for: Effenbergerite
RRUFF - Raman, XRD and other mineral data - search for: Effenbergerite
RRUFF - References and PDF downloads - search for: Effenbergerite
American-Mineralogist-Crystal-Structure-Database - search for: Effenbergerite
Athena - search for: Effenbergerite

Russian pages

Webmineral.ru - search for: Эффенбергерит

Mineral Dealer

German pages

hausen - Mineralgroßhandel - search for: Effenbergerit
Crystal-Treasure.com - search for: Effenbergerit
Bosse - search for: Effenbergerit

Locations with GPS information